Tuesday, 25 October 2011

The Chittagong Armoury Raid ….. The real battle of Indian freedom.

Surya Sen

The backstage

            Surya Sen alias Master da was the master mind of this raid. He was highly influenced by the revolutionary activities of Aurobindo Ghosh and Bagha Jatin. BarindraGhosh, the brother of Aurobindo and a Marathi hero Sukhram Ganesh Deuskar were also the figures who made an influential impact on Surjya Sen. On 30 April, 1908. Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki killed Mr. Kingsford by throwing bombs and this was another incident which led Surya to be involved on revolutionary network. Apart from the three revolutionary groups of Bengal as Anushilan Samiti, Jugantar and Sanjibani Sabha were also well spread at Chittagong. These were enough sources for Surjya to find out the desired path towards Indian freedom. The death of Deshabandu Chittaranjan Das and Bagha Jatin had also made him to be active in revolutionaries activities.

The members
            Surya Sen was the main person of this raid or plan. His was followed by Nirmal Sen, Anant Singh, Ambika Chakraborty, Ganesh Ghosh, Loknath Bal, Tarakeshwar Dastidar and Lalmohan Sen. They gathered  more than 55 teenaged boys and created a group for this historical raid.


The Plan

            The Chittagong armoury raid consists five attacks in five different places on the same night of 18 April, 1930. These were police head quarter, police armoury, European club, telegraph and telephone office and railway track. According to the plan Nirmal Sen and Loknath Bal were appointed for police head quarter. Anant Singh and Ganesh Ghosh were appointed to police armoury. Telegraph and telephone office were to be destroyed by the leadership of Ambika Chakraborty. Naresh Ray was appointed for the attack of European club and lastly two group were divided to collapse the railway track between Dhoom and Langal Ghat.

            The telegraph, telephone office and railway tracks were planned to destroy so that the Chittagong would be detached from the rest part of India and no reinforcement could easily reach. If the plan would be a huge success then according to Master da all the members have to gather at the police head quarter. The intention was by threatening the British polices and capturing this place, they could easily release the prisoners and stock ammunition and arms for future struggle.

In the field

            Everything was running according to the plan. The telegraph and telephone office was destroyed by the revolutionaries at 9:55 PM and no one was killed, just all were broken by hammer. The railway track also destroyed by young revolutionaries. Unfortunately the European club attack became a worst failure to these fighters. The wished to confine all British there so that their co revolutionaries can fulfill the plans but as it was Good Friday, not a single British was found. The armoury as was attacked by Anant Singh and Ganesh Ghosh. They both and followers were able to enter to the main armory and took arms as much as they can but no bullets were there. So, it did not carry a good result. They gathered all the weapons and burnt them on fire and hosted Indian flag instead of British shouting “ vande mataram”. Later as par the order of Surya Sen, all revolutionaries took position to counter British police. There young revolutionaries Fakir Sen, Diptimedha Choudhury and Amarendra Nandi were sent to the town to get information about the current situation of Chittagong town and as same as Anant Singh and Ganesh Ghosh carried Himangshu Sen for a treatment who was severely burnt. Their return took almost two hours which made others to leave the place being worried. They went to the nearest Jalalabag hills. Later Anant Singh’s group followed them to Jalalabag. History says that these two hours was another cause they did not success on this raid.
european club

At Jalalabad

            In the evening of 22 April, 1930, the British police arrived near Jalalabad. Surya Sen did not afraid off at all as the arms power of them was stronger than British. But he was wrong, they had newly reinforced Lewis Gun and dangerous Vicker Machine Gun.  At the first firing several policemen shot dead and revolutionaries jumped to hide behind bushes. Then British fired by the Lewis gun and it hit Tegra alias Harigopal Bal and died after few minutes (a teen ager and brother of Loknath Bal, the first martyr of Chittagong raid case). Next to him ten other teen agers died on spot as Mati Kanungo, Naresh Ray, Tripura Sen, Bidhu Bhushan Bhattacharjya, Sasanka Dutt, Nirmal Lala, Prabhash Bal, Jitendra Das Gupta, Madhushudhan Dutt and Pulin Bikash Ghosh. Ardhendu Dastidar died in hospital being wounded. It made all the team upset and compelled the team to left the hills. They all scattered in groups leaving wounded Ambika Chakraborty thinking dead. Later Ambika was able to escape.
            There was a group of six teenaged revolutionaries still roaming at Jalalabag hills. On 6 May, Deb Prasad Gupta, Manoranjan Sen, Rajat Sen, Swadesh Ray, Phanindra Nath Nandi and Subodh Choudhury came out from hills to attack on European quarters but unfortunately, the plan was backfired and four of them died on spot. Police arrested Subodh and Phanindra ( in some sources it is found that they four committed suicide by firing at themselves rather than killed by British’s bullet).


The two females

            There were two females associated with this raid as Kalpana Dutt and Preetilata Waddedar. They were always with this team but just before the master plan they were obligated to leave Chittagong for Calcutta by the orders of their parents. Before leave, Kalpana as was expert in bomb making, made bombs for her team and as well donated her jewelleries for financial assist of the team. Preetilata also did the same and donated as much as she could. After Jalalabag case, they joined the team again in September, 1931, Surya Sen decided to entrust them with a plan to attack the European Club at Pahartali. Unfortunately Kalpana was arrested just before a week of this action. Later Preetilata led this mission with some teenagers and it was succeeded but as she was covered by police. She took Potassium Cyanide and killed herself instead of surrender. Kalpana was released but again she was trapped by British polices while she was sheltering with Surya Sen. It was a big betrayal of an Indian Netra Sen . Here Kalpana shot dead 7 British soldiers at the age of 16. It was happened on 16 February, 1933. Surya Sen was arrested


The trail

            No one of this raid was able to be escaped for a long time. Everyone was arrested. The total member of this raid is still not found authentic. In various sources it was like 62, 64, 65, 66 and 68.
            Here I am adding the list according to trail. (Need help from readers to make it same percent authenticated as the books provide variation in data)

They who got the martyrdom: - 1. Surya Sen. 2. Tarkeswar Dastidar. 3. Nirmal Sen. 4. Preetilata Waddedar. 5. Tegra alias Hariprasad Bal. 6. Mati Kanungo. 7. Naresh Ray. 8. Tripura Sen. 9. Bidhu Bhushan Bhattacharjee. 10. Prabhash Bal. 11. Sashanka Dutt. 12. Nirmal Lala. 13. Jitendra Das Gupta. 14. Madhu Shudhan Dutt. 15. Pulin Bikash Ghosh. 16. Ardhendu Dastidar. 17. Rajat Sen. 18. Deba Prasad Gupta 19. Manoranjan Sen. 20. Swadesh Ray and 21 Jibon Ghosal.

They who got life time imprisonment: - 1. Ganesh Ghosh. 2. Loknath Bal. 3. Anand Gupta. 4. Ranadhir Das Gupta 5. Ambika Chakraborty. 6. Kalpana Dutt.  7. Ananta Singh. 8. Haripad Bhattacharjee. 9. Fakir Sen. 10. Binod Bihari Choudhury. 11. Subodh Roy. 12. Himangshu Bhowmick. 13. Lal Mohan Sen. 14. Kali Kinkar Dey. 15. Phanindra Nath Nandi. 16. Sahay Ram Das. 17. Subodh Choudhury. 18. Sudhir Ranjan Choudhury. 19. Kalipad Bhattacharjee. 20. Sukhendu Dastdar. 21. Saroj Kanti Guha.

The who were acquitted or less punished :- 1. Swadesh Ray. 2. Bibhu Bhusan Sen. 3. Binod Bihari Dutt. 4. Ban Bihari Das. 5. Sita ram Biswas. 6. Haripad Mahajan. 7. Sambhu Dastidar. 8. Nani Deb. 9. Malin Ghosh. 10. Khirod Bannerjee. 11. Himendu Dastidar. 12. Subodh Paul. 13. Bhabatosh Bhatta. 14. Sudhansgsu Bose. 15. Narayan Sen. 16. Mahendra Choudhury. 17. Birendra Dey. 18. Bijoy Kumar Sen. 19. Nitipad Ghosh. 20. Ashwini Choudhuri. 21. Sukumar Bhowmick. 22. Haren Choudhury. 23. Subodh Mitra. 24. Upen Bhattacharjee. 25. Amarendra Nandi. 26. Krishna Choudhury. 27. Diptimedha Choudhury. 29. Sitaram Biswas.


References ….

1. History Of Modern India – S. N. Sen, New Age International, 2006.
2. Assam in Indian Independence – Arun Bhattacharjee, Mittal Publications, 1993
3. Do and Die : the Chittagong uprising, 1930-34, Manini Chetterjee, Penguin Books, 1999
4. Challenge, a saga of Indian’s struggle for freedom – Nisith Ranjan Ray, People’s publishing house, 1984.
And some websites and blogs for sure.

Special thanks too Bhaskardeep Majumdar.

Saturday, 1 October 2011



Thagi Sut was born on March, 1922 at Nagaon, his father name was Kesharam Gaonbuda. In 1942, he participated at Quit India Movement. On 18 September, he was severely wounded by police firing while participating on a peace rally at Barhampur. He died at the age of 18. 

Hemaram Patar was born at Barapujia on August, 1923. His father name is Ludur Patar. He was also participated on the Quit India Movement and on 26 August, 1942, he was shot dead at Jongal Balahu Garh. He was also stabbed by the bayonet cruelly. 



                           Bhogeswari was born on December, 1885 and got married to Bhogeswar Phukan. He was also severely wounded by police firing while participating in a peace rally at Barhampur on 19 September’1942. For the lack of aid, she died next day on 20 September  

             SHAHEED BALO SUT

             Balo Sut was born on September, 1915 at Chalchali ( Nagaon). His father name was Bhebela Sut. On 18 September, 1942, he was shot dead by police firing while participating on a peace rally at Barhampur.


                Lakshi Hazarika was born at Hazarikachuk ( Nagaon, Mouja… Singia) on October, 1907. He was also shot death along with Balo Sut and died same.


The death of Nidhanu Rajbongshi was a cruel history of Assam planned by Bristish. Nidhanu lived at Fakirgaon (Goalpara). He had to pay 8 INR tax to British and they sent a soldier to collect that money. The soldier asked Nidhanu but he was unable to pay that amount at that very moment, hence the soldier wished to snatch away the bullock of this poor farmer. After a kind request the soldier returned the pair of bullock to him.

Same night, at 11PM, the Sub Divisional officer returned to Dudhnoi from Goalpara and he was informed about that unpaid tax. He suddenly entered to Nidhanu’s home premises and asked him to come out. Nidhanu refused to come out and police fired him where as he was shot dead inside the home where as the house was made of thatching grass and bamboo.


            Kamala Miri participated on the Quit India Movement and was sentenced for imprisonment of six months. He was imprisoned at Jorhat jail where he was on strike as by the proposal of Mahatma Gandhi. He became ill inside the prison and the authority made all documents so that he can be released from jail but Miri refused to accept the proposal of British and died inside the jail on 22 April where 23 April was the date of his release.



 Tilak Deka was born at Charibahi ( Nagaon). His father name was Maniram Deka. He participated on Quit India Movement. He guarded his village as a member of Shantisena( peace force). At 1 PM, a patrolling police force wished to enter to the village but Tilak hindered them and that’s why he was shot dead at the spot by British. This case happened on 28 August, 1942.


            Gunabhiram was born at Bhalukmari darangia ( Nagaon) on March, 1910. On 26 August, 1942, he was shot dead by British near Jongal Balahu Garh ( Nagaon) .



           Hemaram Bora was born on 15 October, 1919. His father name was Brikodar Gaonbuda. On 26 August, 1942, polices arrested many villagers from Bebejia including pregnant woman. Bora went to collect news of this cruel torture of British on civilians. At that time police savagely fired on him while he was shot dead along with others.


           Kalai Koch was born at Shenchoa Kumargaon (Nagaon) on September, 1917.  He was also died on the firing of British at Bebejia where Hemram Bora died along with him.

                                             (SHAHEED KUSHAL KONWAR)

viewers can meet me on my another blog...... http://shibham.wordpress.com/


Tuesday, 27 September 2011


DHEKIAJULI FIRING.                    

                   On 20 September, 1932 more that six thousands citizens from Chatia, Barbil, Naharbari, Jahamari etc gathered at Dhekiajuli police station to host the national flag. The Officer in charge of the police station already knew it and prepared armed force. At first he ordered to beat the innocent protestors. At the mean time, Somehow Golok Neog and Manbar Nath entered to the station and hosted the flag. Police immediately fired at them and Manbar Nath got wounded. To save Golok Neog, his mom got wounded and fell down. Mahiram Koch, who entered station to bring the flag which was lying on soil, was shot dead by police. So, as the firing became more aggressive people began to run to and fro. In the main exit root, there was a bridge and some Maimansingia (Kind of Muslims) were hiding under the bridge. They immediately began to beat those protestors who ran to save their lives from police firing and many of them severely wounded and died.

They who got martyrdom..... 1. Manbar Nath ( died at the midst of the road as already wounded by firing). 2. Mani Kachari ( near police station at firing). 3. Ratan Kachari ( on the attack of Mamansingia). 4. Tileswari Koch ( on the attack of Maimansingia). 5. Numali Nath (shot dead when went to save her son ). 6. Mahiram Koch ( inside station when went to bring the flag). 7. Mangal Kurmi ( he was found dead after 4 days almost one mile away from the police station. 8. Khahuli Nath. 9. Dayal Panika. 10. Somanath Chutia. 11. Lerela Kachari. 12. One saint.  13. One beggar.

They who got wounded….. 1. Mani Kachari. 2. Kunda Kachari. 3. Bhola Nath. 4. Bhogi Nathini. 5. Kalidoi Nathini. 6. Medir Nathini. 7. Golapi Nathini. 8. Tulaai Nathini. 9. Chadra Nath. 10. Dariki Nathini. 11. Herang Bodo. 12. Rajendra Prasad Basumatary. 13. Bhogai Nath. 14. Gopi Koch. 15. Joyram Nath. 16. Kamalakanta Das. 17. Maya Kishor Thakuria. 18. Nareswar Peon. 19. Gobardhan Das. 20. Dayaram Nath. 21. Maina Kachari. 22. Ramcharan Gowala 23. Ram Bhuyan and many more.


                    On 18 September , 1942, the volunteers of Indian freedom occupied the peace camp of Barhampur which was earlier under police force and a celebration was running by volunteers. They were taking launch and at the mean time police force arrived. The special magistrate Mr. V. H. Routhge was tried to convince by volunteer Pratap Chandra Sarma that once the lauch is finished, the volunteers will leave the place. After few minutes Routhge arrested Sarma and other 10 volunteers and tortured on all others who gathered there. They begin to shout with “ Vande Mataram”.  Hearing this sound, some villagers from the nearest village came out on the leading role of Ratnabala and her mother Bhogeswari Phukanani. The police force ran fast to hinder the rally and Mr. Finch snatched away the Indian flag from the hand of Ratnabala and began to fire.

They who got the martyrdom…. 1. Lakshmi Kanta Hazarika. 2. Thagiram Sut. 3. Baloram Sut. 4. Bhogeswari Phukanani.

They who got wounded…. 1. Haliram Hazarika. 2. Chakiram Nath. 3. Dambaru Dhar Barua. 4. Bheleu Ram Nath and some others had minor injuries.


                 At the night  of 25 August, 1942. Some unknown persons burnt the bridge of Bebejia and next day police tortured the whole villagers of that village.  At least 400 villagers were arrested even pregnant women ( wife of Baloram Sarma), 80 years old villager ( father of Siddhinath Sarma, mother of a three days old baby( Ruhini), physically challenged person. All of them were forced to walk to the head quarter and all were tortured and beaten from backside.  After almost five miles of walk total 98 villagers were released. All the villagers were kept in hunger under the open sky at the midst of the paddy field although they request an Indian Mr. Radha Ranjan Kar ( DC) to release them. Next day total 30 were sent to prison and others were released.  Civilians from nearest villages were rowing to Nagaon head quarter to know the fact and health conditions of those prisoners. Police fired at them and two died on spot and several got injured.

They who got the martyrdom…. 1. Kalai Koch. 2. Hemkanta Barua.

They who got wounded…. 1. Pradip Saikia ( a student). 2. Rajendra Ram Kalita. 3. Nahar Nath. 4. Mohan Chandra Nath. 5. Bagai Ram Deka. 6. Kalising Rajbongshi


               Same day of Bebejia firing, it was spread by people that British is bringing military force to dominate the revolutionaries and other activists of freedom movement. So, they decided to destroy the bridge near Jongal Balahu which is on the way to Guwahati from Nagaon. People gathered almost 16 miles away from Nagaon near the Garh break down the bridge but suddenly police force arrived at that place and fired at the innocent people.

They who got the martyrdom…. 1. Hemoram Patar ( Barpujia) 2. Gunabhi Ram Bardaloi (Darangia village)

They who got wounded…. 1. Golok Chadra Bhuyan 2. Banai Lalung. 3. Mohan Chandra Deka.

( Same day, at the night police shot dead Tilak Deka at Barapujia…. I am writing about him on my next article)


                On 20 September, 1942, almost 4000 villagers and volunteers from Kalabar and nearly 3000 from Barangabari came in a rally to host the Indian flag on Gahpur police station. On the western gate of the police station Miss Kanaklata Barua was waiting with some other girls to enter to the station premises. They asked police to permit them in hosting the flag peacefully but police never listened to them rather fired. At first Kanaklata was shot dead and next Mukunda Kakati.

They who got martyrdom….. 1. Kanaklata Barua. 2. Mukunda Ram Kakati

They who got wounded…. 1. Hem Barua. 2. Bagai Kachari. 3. Khargeswar Barua. 4. Thuleswar Rajkhowa. 5. Bholanath Bhralaibarua.


               On 9 October, 1942, a military train was derailed near Sarupathar rail station. Some Americans and militaries were dead in this accident. With the help of a traitor Bhagiram Gaonbuda, police arrested 42 persons accusing in this accident. Total seven persons were found guilty by British although they had no proof.  Three were sentenced to be hanged and others were imprisoned.

They who got martyrdom…. 1. Kushal Konwar. 2. Kanakeswar. 3. Dharmeswar Deka 4. Ghanashyam Saikia ( his punishment was lessened to 10 years imporisonment)

They who got 10 years imprisonment…. 1. Nagen Chutia. 2. Indreswar Phukan.

He who got three years imprisonment…. Dharmeswar Gagoi.

Its a true fact that another firing was occurred at Rehabari ( Barpeta) where more than three got their martyrdom and several were severely wounded.

Its a Shibham's information based on many books. Just salute our heroes. Thanks.